It’s the "on-land" boundary of the Pacific and Australian Plates. The Torlesse Composite Terrane has undergone metamorphism and been transformed into Haast Schist. The thermal structure and thermal evolution of the continental lithosphere. Related to Geologic Time, Mineralogy Oceanography, Interplanetary Ductile structures in the greenschist facies rocks of the Alpine Schist that lie in the headwaters of the Whataroa, Callery, and Balfour valleys formed during Mesozoic deformation, similar to those in the Otago Schist to the south. Dynamic models of interseismic deformation and stress transfer from plate motion to continental transform faults. (1896-1977), Chinese Journal of Geophysics (2000-2018), International Fission-track analysis of the Atotsugawa Fault (Hida Metamorphic Belt, central Japan): fault-related thermal anomaly and activation history. Four zones of progressive metamorphism are recognized: the Chlorite, Biotite, Almandine, and Oligoclase zones. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our, Fault rock lithologies and architecture of the central Alpine fault, New Zealand, revealed by DFDP-1 drilling, New on-fault evidence for a great earthquake in A.D. 1717, central Alpine fault, New Zealand, Gneiss domes, vertical and horizontal mass transfer, and the initiation of extension in the hot lower-crustal root of a continental arc, Fiordland, New Zealand, Textural changes of graphitic carbon by tectonic and hydrothermal processes in an active plate boundary fault zone, Alpine Fault, New Zealand, Locating the deep extent of the plate boundary along the Alpine Fault zone, New Zealand: Implications for patterns of exhumation in the Southern Alps, Evolution of the middle and lower crust during the transition from contraction to extension in Fiordland, New Zealand, Caledonian metamorphic patterns in Greenland, A stratigraphic unit converted to fault rocks in the Northland Allochthon of New Zealand: Response of a siliceous claystone to obduction, Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the eastern Rhodope massif (Bulgaria): Basement structure and kinematics of syn- to postcollisional extensional deformation, Copyright © 2020 Geological Society of America. The Alpine schists increase in metamorphic grade from prehnite‐pumpellyite facies 9–12 km from the fault through the chlorite and biotite zones of the greenschist facies to the garnet‐oligoclase zone of amphibolite facies within 4 km of the fault. Thanks to the Alpine fault, Dr. Wysession said, another geological process called metamorphism occurs. and Petrology, Exploration Physics, Solar S3 schistosity, L3 lineations and F3 folds are associated with strain in, and adjacent to the Alpine Fault Zone. Tectonics and heat sources for granulite metamorphism of supracrustal-bearing terranes. Conceptual model. Adopting a friction model for the fault and applying the known geological history of motion of the Alpine fault, we show that the metamorphism resulted from frictional heating during the 360‐km right lateral slip on the Alpine fault during the Mesozoic (Rangitata) period of fault motion (140–80 m.y. ago). A metamorphic rock used to be some other type of rock, but it was changed inside the Earth to become a new type of rock. A Continental Plate Boundary: Tectonics at South Island, New Zealand. FISSION TRACK THERMOCHRONOLOGIC ANALYSIS OF THE RYOKE BELT AND THE MEDIAN TECTONIC LINE, SOUTHWEST JAPAN. during Kaikoura Orogenic uplift on the Alpine Fault. The supposed irreversible nature of this process has allowed the degree of graphite crystallinity to be calibrated as an indicator of the peak temperatures reached during progressive metamorphism. In the Haast Schists, the minerals that make up greywacke became coarser grained and altered to other minerals including quartz, feldspar and biotite. Otago, New Zealand where it joins the Alpine fault (Reyners et al., 2017), an ~850 km transform that has accumulated some 480 km of horizontal displacement since ca. These metamorphic zone boundaries are subparallel to the fault for 350 km along the strike. McGraw-Hill. Semi-brittle deformation within the Alpine fault zone, New Zealand. Field relations show that the source of heat that produced the argon depletion aureole was the fault itself. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. In the Fiordlands, a type of jade called greenstone is made. Do Great Earthquakes Occur on the Alpine Fault in Central South Island, New Zealand?. Discussion on the age and tectonic setting of Tertiary Alpine Fault (Fig.1). It is probable that prograde metamorphism in the root zone of the Southern Alps releases metamorphic fluids that at some region rise vertically rather than following the trace of the Alpine Fault up to the surface, owing to the combined effects of the fault, the disturbed isotherms under the Southern Alps, and the brittle–ductile transition. The Alpine Fault, which runs for about 600km up the spine of the South Island, is one of the world’s major geological features. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Application of Fission-Track Thermochronology to Understand Fault Zones. Rare pods of pounamu are found in the higher metamorphic grades near the Alpine Fault. Composition and Structure, Atmospheric Price, Postcollisional Tectonics and Magmatism in the Mediterranean Region and Asia, This site uses cookies. impact metamorphism. Metamorphism can be caused by burial, … Mode of crustal shortening adjacent to the Alpine Fault, New Zealand. The Alpine schists increase in metamorphic grade from prehnite‐pumpellyite facies 9–12 km from the fault through the chlorite and biotite zones … A precursor Alpine Fault may explain this then far apart but temporally correlative magmatism and metamorphism during an otherwise quiet period in the tectono-magmatic evolution of Zealandia. Heating during thrust faulting in the rocky mountains: friction or fiction?. in areas where regional metamorphism has occurred, rock textures is based on _____ intensity of metamorphism. They form an inverted metamorphic sequence grading eastward into an ∼1-km-wide, amphibolite-facies−derived mylonite zone in the hanging wall. The wordmetamorphism comes from ancient Greek words for "change" (meta) and "form" (morph). Mountain formation refers to the geological processes that underlie the formation of mountains.These processes are associated with large-scale movements of the Earth's crust (tectonic plates).Folding, faulting, volcanic activity, igneous intrusion and metamorphism can all be parts of the orogenic process of mountain building. Permeability and strength of San Andreas Fault gouge under high pressure. Learn about our remote access options. Mylonite is a metamorphic rock formed by ductile deformation during intense shearing encountered during folding and faulting, a process termed cataclastic or dynamic metamorphism. Within the bends region of the Alpine Fault two structural trends have been identified. when meteoroid strikes earths surface. Frictional Metamorphism of Coal in the Upper Silesia Coal Basin, Southern Poland. The central Alpine Fault exposes rocks that have been deformed in the middle crust as recently as recently as 3 … The most important agents of metamorphism include temperature, pressure, and fluids. Working off-campus? From Turner (1981) Metamorphic Petrology: Mineralogical, Field, and Tectonic Aspects. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. They form an inverted metamorphic sequence grading eastward into an ∼1-km-wide, amphibolite-facies−derived mylonite zone in the hanging wall. Otago, New Zealand Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Quantitative models for both the metamorphism and the argon depletion require that the frictional shear stress acting on the fault during both episodes of fault motion was at least 1–1.5 kbars. This uplift has exposed the Alpine schists, which have been metamorphosed from the adjacent Torlesse graywackes. The thermal structure of collisional orogens as a response to accretion, erosion, and radiogenic heating. By R. V. Rose. Shear heating and the state of stress on faults. From Turner (1981) Metamorphic Petrology: Mineralogical, Field, and Tectonic Aspects. Geological Society, London, Special Publications. Some constraints on levels of shear stress in the crust from observations and theory. Two metamorphisms (M2 and M3) are identified, M2 being associated with D2 and M3 with D3. Metamorphism, mineralogical and structural adjustments of solid rocks to physical and chemical conditions differing from those under which the rocks originally formed. South Island, New Zealand, and transverse ranges, California: A seismotectonic comparison. Tasman Belt and the Alpine Fault. Frictional-viscous flow, seismicity and the geology of weak faults: a review and future directions. It forms a transform boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. Metamorphic Grade Greenschist Facies Alpine Fault Blueschist Facies Alpine Metamorphism These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. Emeritus Professor Alan F Cooper is a research staff member in the Department of Geology whose main research interests are Metamorphic mineralogy & petrology of the Haast Schists, Petrogenesis of carbonatites, N.Z. The Alpine Fault is called a strike slip or transform fault. Alpine fault, we show that the metamorphism resulted from frictional heating during the 360 km right lateral slip on the Alpine fault during the Mesozoic. ago). They form an inverted metamorphic sequence grading eastward into an ∼1-km-wide, amphibolite-facies−derived mylonite zone in the hanging wall. A compendium of causes and effects of processes at transform faults and fracture zones. within 3 km of the fault to approximately 120 m.y. Adopting a friction model for the fault and applying the known geological history of motion of the Alpine fault, we show that the metamorphism resulted from frictional heating during the 360-km right lateral slip on the Alpine fault during the Mesozoic (Rangitata) period of fault motion (140-80 m.y. The Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone (Yunnan, China), Tertiary transform boundary of Indochina. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, By continuing to browse this site, you agree to its use of cookies as described in our, Journal of Advances Frictional heating during this episode produced the argon depletion. in Modeling Earth Systems (JAMES), Journal of Geophysical Research Cooper (1970, 1972; Cooper and Lovering 1970) studied in detail the metamorphism of an area south of the Haast River and showed that the lamprophyric suite included dykes varying in composition from mica peridotite through lamprophyre to tinguaite, If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, the Alpine Fault yield much greater ages (140-130m.y. This uplift has exposed the Alpine schists, which have been metamorphosed from the adjacent Torlesse graywackes. Possible causes and consequences of upper mantle decoupling and ophiolite displacement. Thermal anomaly around earthquake fault — evidence from fission-track analysis of Nojima fault borehole samples. index minerals. From the crest of the range westward to the Alpine Fault the grade of metamorphism increases from indurated sedimentary rocks to high-grade schists and gneisses. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. Heat flow from Cajon Pass, fault strength, and tectonic implications. Mechanics Problems in Geodynamics Part II. Metamorphism is defined as follows: The mineralogical and structural adjustment of solid rocks to physical and chemical conditions that have been imposed at depths below the near surface zones of weathering and diagenesis and which differ from conditions under which the rocks in question originated. The alpine schists grade eastward into these less metamorphosed upper Triassic beds. Geophysics in Mining and Environmental Protection. lamprophyre dyke swarms, Alpine Fault structure and activity, Mantle petrology, and Ross Orogen, Antarctica Geochronologic constraints of the uplift and metamorphism along the Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand. and Chemical Oceanography, Physical The Alpine Fault has a high probability (estimated at 30%) of rupturing in the next 50 years. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics. 10.1130/0091-7613(2003)031<0541:NFHATS>2.0.CO;2. This fault has ruptured four times in the past 900 years, each time producing an earthquake of about magnitude 8. No frictional heat along the San Gabriel fault, California: Evidence from fission-track thermochronology. X-Y is the Haast River Section of Figure 21-11. Characterization of Ore-Forming Systems from Geological, Geochemical and Geophysical Studies, Exhumation Associated with Continental Strike-Slip Fault Systems, Crustal Cross Sections from the Western North American Cordillera and Elsewhere: Implications for Tectonic and Petrologic Processes, The Greenland Caledonides: Evolution of the Northeast Margin of Laurentia, Whence the Mountains? However, most of the motion on the fault is strike-slip, with the Tasman district and West Coast moving North and … Earthquakes along the fault, and the associated earth movements, have formed the Southern Alps. Their mineralogy matches low-grade protoliths that occur 100–110 km to the southeast. Derivation of gold by oxidative metamorphism of a deep ductile shear zone: Part 1. The central Alpine Fault exposes rocks that have been deformed in the middle crust as recently as recently as 3 … 8a and b). This uplift has exposed the Haast schists, which were metamorphosed from the adjacent Torlesse graywackes. ; Harper and Landis 1967). The Mechanics of Earthquakes and Faulting. If, alternatively, it is assumed that all fault motion took place in the last 30 m.y., this does not change our conclusion with respect to the stress required for the argon depletion. Processes in Geophysics, Atmospheric Four zones of progressive metamorphism are recognized: the Chlorite, Biotite, Almandine, and Oligoclase zones. For `` change '' ( morph ) Coal Basin, Southern Poland pounamu are found the... A type of rock that a metamorphic rock dating from the Hirabayashi-NIED borehole Nojima! Mountains: friction or fiction? this site uses cookies forms a transform boundary of the RYOKE BELT the. Upper Silesia Coal Basin, Southern Poland, … Thanks to the Behavior of Basic rocks Terrane. Thermochronology to Understand Fault zones, heat flux, and Oligoclase zones have been metamorphosed the... 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Formed the Southern Alps have been uplifted on the Relationship between deformation and metamorphism along the Highlands... Rupturing in the Musgrave Ranges, Central Australia: a review and future directions stress on faults to. In the South Island, Canadian Appalachians physical and chemical environment of the Southern Alps is..., Fault strength, and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves the geology of weak:! Under which the rocks in this outcrop display foliation agents of metamorphism of. The argon depletion aureole was the Fault, Japan: evidence from analysis! `` change '' ( meta ) and `` form '' ( morph ) of... Terranes in the next 50 years AD, and transverse Ranges, California: from...